The Fifth Gender

In the old times, pre-Islamic period, the position of bissu is the adviser or the king. Their main rule is to lead any spiritual and sacred ceremonies, to take care the kingdom heritages artifacts, and to heal the sick ones. In this current time, these functions are taken away from them. With the influences of…

The Spirits of Rambu Solo

One of the four major ethnic groups in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, inhabits the mountainous region of this continent. They are called as Toraja and it is derived from Buginese language term to riaja, means “people of the uplands”. Then in the Dutch colonial era, these people are named as Toraja. The Toraja people are renowned…

Imaging Puya

In the traditional beliefs of Toraja people, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, death is not the end of life cycle. It is the beginning of someone’s journey to meet The Greatest. This traditional belief conception believes that all the living things will reach puya, the dream of heaven for all people after death. It is the reason,…

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